# List all files in a long listing (detailed) format
ls -al
# Display the present working directory
# Create a directory
mkdir directory
# Remove (delete) file
rm file
# Remove the directory and its contents recursively
rm -r directory
# Force removal of file without prompting for confirmation
rm -f file
# Forcefully remove directory recursively
rm -rf directory
# Copy file1 to file2
cp file1 file2
# Copy source_directory recursively to destination. If destination exists, copy source_directory into destination, otherwise create destination with the contents of source_directory.
cp -r source_directory destination
# Rename or move file1 to file2. If file2 is an existing directory, move file1 into directory file2
mv file1 file2
# Create symbolic link to linkname
ln -s /path/to/file linkname
# Create an empty file or update the access and modification times of file.
touch file
# View the contents of file
cat file
# Browse through a text file
less file
# Display the first 10 lines of file
head file
# Display the last 10 lines of file
tail file
# Display the last 10 lines of file and "follow" the file as it grows.
tail -f file
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